Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (VCDPA)

In 2021, Virginia made history of its own by becoming the second state among the 50 in the USA to enforce a comprehensive state law on data protection. This legislation, known as the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, or VCDPA for short, is a milestone in safeguarding consumers’ personal data within the state.

The VCDPA was put into place because of growing concerns about data privacy. With more of our lives happening online, there’s a lot of personal information floating around out there.

In this article, I’ll break down what the VCDPA is, what it requires from businesses, and what rights it gives to consumers. I’ll also explore how you can make sure you’re following the law and keeping your business in good standing in Virginia.

  • Virginia’s VCDPA, effective since 2023, safeguards personal data, imposing transparency, rights, and responsibilities on businesses.
  • Businesses operating in Virginia and those targeting its residents must comply with the VCDPA. Compliance includes data transparency, respect for consumer rights, and stringent data protection measures.
  • The Virginia Attorney General enforces VCDPA, with potential fines of up to $7,500 per violation, incentivizing businesses to adhere to its provisions.

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What Is the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (VCDPA)?

The Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (VCDPA) is a data privacy law that aims to safeguard the privacy of Virginia residents when businesses handle their personal information. It was signed into law on March 2, 2021, and it became effective on January 1, 2023.

Under the VCDPA, your customers can ask to see their personal data, and if they want, they can also ask you to delete it. It also tells you to do checks to make sure you’re protecting personal data, especially when you use it for things like ads and sales.

Now, here’s why the VCDPA matters to you: It means you need to be extra careful about what data you collect from your users, how you use it, and who you share it with. This isn’t just about avoiding penalties (although that’s part of it); it’s also about building trust with your customers. When they know you’re looking out for their data, they’re more likely to trust and support your business.

PRO TIP: You can prioritize transparency by not only complying with the VCDPA’s requirements but also proactively communicating your data handling practices to your customers. When they are informed and engaged, they are more likely to trust your business.

What Are the General Definitions of VCDPA?

The VCDPA defines several terms that are relevant to the law’s application. Here are some of the key definitions:

  • Controller: The natural or legal person who, alone or jointly with others, decides why and how consumer data is processed. It could be a business or website owner who is in charge of personal data.
  • Processor: A natural or legal entity that processes personal data on behalf of a controller. They follow the controller’s instructions when it comes to managing and protecting personal data.
  • Process or processing: Any operation or set of operations performed on personal data, such as the collection, use, storage, disclosure, analysis, deletion, or modification of personal data.
  • Consumer: A natural person who is a Virginia resident acting only in an individual or household context and does not include a natural person acting in a commercial or employment context.
  • Personal data: Any information that is linked or reasonably linkable to an identified or identifiable natural person and does not include de-identified data or publicly available information. This includes name, address, email, or even online behavior.
  • Sensitive data: A category of personal data that includes personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, religious beliefs, mental or physical health diagnosis, sexual orientation, or citizenship or immigration status; the processing of genetic or biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person; the personal data collected from a known child; or precise geolocation data. Sensitive personal data is more private and important and needs extra protection.
  • De-identified data: Data that cannot reasonably be linked to an identified or identifiable natural person or a device linked to such person. When data is de-identified, it means that it’s been stripped of anything that could link it back to an individual. It’s anonymous data, so it’s not subject to the VCDPA.
  • Pseudonymous data: Personal data that cannot be attributed to a specific natural person without the use of additional information, provided that such additional information is kept separately and is subject to appropriate technical and organizational measures to ensure that the personal data is not attributed to an identified or identifiable natural person.
  • Consent: Consent means giving clear and voluntary permission for a business to collect and use data. It’s like saying, “Yes, you can use my information for this purpose.”

Think of these definitions as the basic pieces that help you understand the VCDPA. They make it easier to understand the important words and ideas you’ll encounter when you learn more about this law.

Be cautious when collecting and using sensitive data, such as health or financial information. Processing of personal data like this will require you to conduct and document a data protection assessment.

Who Does VCDPA Apply To?

The VCDPA primarily applies to you if you do business in Virginia and advertise your products or services to Virginia residents. It also covers entities that create products or services specifically for Virginia residents.

For the VCDPA to apply, you must meet either of the following criteria:

  • handle the personal data of at least 100,000 consumers in a year.
  • handle the personal data of at least 25,000 consumers and make more than half of their income from selling that data.

In simple terms, if your business operates in Virginia, serves its residents, or deals with a significant amount of their personal data, the VCDPA likely applies to you. However, the VCDPA does not explicitly state whether it applies to you if you are outside the United States.

PRO TIP: Even if your business is not based in Virginia but collects data from Virginia residents, or you have users or customers in this Commonwealth, consider seeking legal counsel or guidance to determine whether compliance is necessary to avoid potential legal risks.

Key Principles and Provisions of VCDPA

The VCDPA outlines several key principles and provisions you must follow when handling personal data. Here’s a simplified overview:

  • Data Transparency: You must be clear about what personal data you collect, why you collect it, and how it will be used. Consumers have the right to know. To achieve this transparency, it’s necessary to have a clear and accessible privacy policy, which is a document that explains all of these details to your customers.
  • Consumer Rights: Virginian residents have rights over their data. They can access the personal information held by businesses, correct inaccuracies, and request deletion under certain circumstances.
  • Purpose Limitation: You can only use personal data for the purposes you’ve stated when collecting it. You can’t use it for unrelated activities.
  • Sensitive Data: There are extra protections for sensitive personal data, such as health or financial information. Consent is often required for collecting and using this data.
  • Controller and Processor Obligations: The VCDPA imposes obligations to those who control or process personal data, such as transparency, data protection assessments, and security measures.
  • Data Protection Assessments: The VCDPA requires companies to conduct data protection assessments related to processing personal data for purposes of targeted advertising and sales purposes. You must also put in place safeguards to protect personal data from breaches or unauthorized access.
  • Enforcement: If you don’t follow the rules, the Attorney General of Virginia can step in and make sure you do. They can even impose fines for breaking the law.

These principles and provisions aim to strike a balance between protecting consumers’ data rights and enabling you to operate responsibly. Understanding and following these rules is important if you are subject to the VCDPA to ensure compliance and maintain trust with their customers.

PRO TIP: Consider going above and beyond the VCDPA’s requirements by not only complying with data transparency but also educating your users about their privacy rights through clear, user-friendly guides or FAQs.

What Are the Data Subject Rights Under VCDPA?

Under the VCDPA, data subjects or your customers have several rights that allow them to control their personal data. These key data subject rights provided by the VCDPA include the following:

Right to Access

Customers can ask to see what personal info you have about them. They can also ask why you’re using it and if you’re sharing it with others.

Right to Correction

If the info you have about someone is wrong or incomplete, they can ask you to fix it. You need to make sure their details are accurate.

Right to Deletion

People can ask you to delete their personal info. If you don’t need it anymore for what you collected it for, you have to delete it, unless there’s a good reason not to.

Right to Opt-Out of Targeted Advertising

If you use people’s info to show them specific ads, they can say, “No, thanks.” You have to give them an easy way to do that.

Right to Data Portability

If someone wants to take their info and use it somewhere else, you have to give it to them in a format they can easily use.

Right to Appeal Automated Decisions

If you make important decisions about someone using machines, they can say, “Hold on, I want a human to check this.” You need to have a way for them to do that.

Rights to Equal Treatment

You can’t treat your customers differently just because they exercise their rights under the VCDPA. You can’t punish them for using their data rights.

These rights are all about giving customers more control over their personal info and making sure you’re open and responsible when you use their data. It’s a way of saying that people have the power to decide how their information is handled, and it’s your responsibility to respect their choices. This builds trust and shows that you value their privacy, which is essential in today’s digital world.

How Can Businesses Comply With VCDPA?

Here’s a list of ways you can comply with VCDPA:

  • Data Mapping and Inventory: Start by identifying all the personal data you collect and store. Create a map of where it’s located, how you use it, and who has access to it. This helps you have a clear picture of the data you’re handling.
  • Data Privacy Policies: Draft and maintain clear and transparent data privacy rights and policies. These should inform consumers about what data you collect, why you collect it, and how you use it. Make sure these policies are easily accessible on your website.
  • Data Subject Rights Procedures: Develop procedures for handling data subject requests. Ensure that individuals can easily exercise their rights to access, correct, or delete their data. In addition, train your staff on these procedures.
  • Data Security Measures: Implement robust security measures to protect personal data from breaches and unauthorized access. Encryption, access controls, regular security assessments, and physical data security practices are all essential.
  • Consent Mechanisms: If you rely on consent to collect and use data, make sure you have clear and explicit consent mechanisms. Consumers should easily understand what they’re agreeing to.
  • Data Minimization: Collect only the data necessary for your stated purposes. Avoid excessive collection of personal data for purposes that aren’t relevant to your business goals.
  • Record-Keeping and Accountability: Maintain records of data processing activities and designate a person or team responsible for data protection. This demonstrates accountability in compliance efforts.
  • Regular Audits and Assessments: Regular audits and assessments of your data protection practices can help identify and rectify compliance gaps.
  • Training and Awareness: Train your employees about data protection and privacy laws, ensuring they understand their roles in compliance. They must also know how to respond to consumers promptly.
  • Vendor Agreements: If you share personal data with third parties, ensure they also comply with the VCDPA. Create clear agreements that outline their responsibilities regarding data protection.
  • Data Breach Response Plan: Develop a response plan for data breaches. Know how to notify affected individuals and authorities if a breach occurs, as required by the VCDPA.
  • Regular Updates: Stay informed about changes in data protection laws and regulations. If there are any changes, update your practices and policies accordingly to maintain compliance.

By following these steps, you can remain compliant with the VCDPA and ensure that you protect customer data while meeting legal requirements.

Who Enforces VCDPA?

The enforcement of the VCDPA primarily falls under the authority of the Virginia Attorney General. The Attorney General ensures that businesses operating in Virginia comply with its provisions. This enforcement authority includes investigating potential violations, taking legal action against non-compliant businesses, and seeking civil penalties for breaches of the law.

Before taking any legal action, the Virginia Attorney General will send a written notice to you or any company or organization that handles personal data (that’s the “controller” or “processor”). This notice will explain what parts of the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (VCDPA) they think have been broken or are currently being broken.

If, within 30 days, you fix the problem and tell the Attorney General in writing that you’ve fixed it and won’t break the rules again, then the Attorney General won’t take any legal action against you. It’s like a second chance to do things right and avoid getting into legal trouble.

In addition, individuals who believe their rights under Virginia’s data privacy law have been violated may also have the right to take legal action against businesses in certain circumstances, although the law primarily entrusts enforcement to the Attorney General’s office.

What Are the Penalties for Violating VCDPA?

The penalties for violations of the VCDPA can include both regulatory and legal consequences:

Civil Penalties

The VCDPA allows the Virginia Attorney General to impose civil penalties on businesses found to be in violation of the law. These penalties can amount to up to $7,500 per violation. The specific amount may depend on the nature and severity of the violation.

Consumer Lawsuits

Under certain circumstances, individual customers may have the right to bring a private lawsuit against businesses for violations of their rights under the VCDPA. If successful, these lawsuits can result in financial damages awarded to the affected individuals.

Data Subject Rights

Violating data subject rights, such as failing to provide access to personal data or not respecting data deletion requests, can lead to regulatory penalties and potential legal actions by affected individuals.

Reputation Damage

Non-compliance with data protection laws like the VCDPA can harm your reputation. News of data breaches or privacy violations can affect customer trust negatively and lead to loss of customers and revenue.

Business Disruption

Legal actions, regulatory investigations, and fines can disrupt business operations. If a business continues to violate the VCDPA, this can lead to financial losses and resource-intensive efforts to rectify compliance issues.

To avoid these penalties, you need to understand and adhere to the VCDPA’s requirements. Compliance not only helps mitigate legal risks but also builds trust among customers, which can be a valuable asset in today’s digital landscape. Consulting legal professionals and implementing robust data protection practices are advisable to ensure compliance with the VCDPA and protect against potential penalties.

How Does VCDPA Compare to Other Data Privacy Laws?

The VCDPA finds parallels with other data privacy laws both within the USA and globally, yet it also introduces unique provisions that differentiate it.

For instance, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) both grant consumers specific rights over their personal data. These rights include the ability to access, correct, and delete personal information. The VCDPA echoes these sentiments, ensuring consumers have similar control over their data.

Another shared principle is the concept of data minimization. The VCDPA, akin to many of its counterparts, advocates for businesses to gather only the data essential for their stated objectives. This approach not only promotes efficiency but also reduces potential risks associated with data breaches.

Furthermore, the VCDPA mandates businesses to maintain transparency in their data processing activities. This is reminiscent of the GDPR’s stipulation for data controllers to furnish lucid privacy notices to users.

In terms of applicability, the VCDPA is designed for businesses operating in Virginia or those offering products or services to its residents. This is comparable to the CCPA’s focus on California residents and the GDPR’s emphasis on individuals within the European Union. Additionally, both the VCDPA and the GDPR recognize the importance of data protection assessments. These evaluations are key when businesses process personal data for targeted advertising and sales.

However, the VCDPA is not without its unique characteristics. A notable distinction is its approach to sensitive data. While the CCPA does not mandate it, the VCDPA obliges businesses to secure opt-in consent before processing sensitive information, ensuring an added safeguard for such data.

The enforcement mechanisms also differ. The VCDPA entrusts its enforcement to the Virginia Attorney General. In contrast, the CCPA permits both governmental enforcement and private litigations, and the GDPR relies on various data protection authorities across its member states.

Another difference lies in the penalties. Violations under the VCDPA can result in fines up to $7,500 per instance. The GDPR, on the other hand, has a steeper penalty structure, with potential fines reaching up to €20 million or 4% of a company’s global annual revenue, depending on which is greater.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (VCDPA)?

The VCDPA is a data privacy law in Virginia, effective since January 1, 2023, aiming to protect consumers’ personal data.

Who does the VCDPA apply to?

The VCDPA primarily applies to businesses operating in Virginia, serving its residents, or handling significant amounts of their data.

What are the key principles of VCDPA?

Key principles include data transparency, consumer rights, purpose limitation, protection of sensitive data, and obligations for controllers and processors.

How can businesses comply with VCDPA?

Compliance involves data mapping, transparent policies, procedures for data subject rights, data security, consent mechanisms, and more.

Who enforces VCDPA?

The Virginia Attorney General enforces VCDPA, investigating violations, taking legal action, and seeking penalties for non-compliance.

What are the penalties for violating VCDPA?

Penalties include civil fines of up to $7,500 per violation, potential consumer lawsuits, and reputational damage.

Andreea Mare
Andrea is a data protection and privacy specialist with many years of education and expertise in this area of law. She helps clients by ensuring compliance is reached on all levels while taking into account the legal requirements and their business' needs.