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What Are Cookies & Why Are They Important

When you come across the word cookies while visiting some websites, the first thing that may come to mind is delicious, chocolate chip-filled treats. But what do these cookies have to do with the website we visit?

Why do some websites display a “this site uses cookies” message on their home page and require consent to proceed and we thoughtlessly click agree, what’s this all about?

Do such questions also pop up in your mind and you start wondering about the purpose of cookies in the internet world? Let’s dive into further details about computer cookies and what they’re used for.

What are Cookies?

What are cookies?

A computer cookie, commonly known as an HTTP cookie or web cookie, are small text files that store small pieces of information. They’re created by the websites you visit or their affiliates and are stored on your computer.

The data that cookies store is usually some type of tracking information to help the website perform various tasks, such as manage a session ID when you sign in. Cookies are limited to 4kb in size which means they cannot store large amounts of data.

What do Dookies do?

Cookies aren’t something that you can access from the drop-down menu in your browser and view them. Yet they are very important when it comes to browsing the internet and play a great role in making browsing more convenient for you.

Every time you visit a website, it sends a small piece of information to your computer to keep track of your movement on the site, your visits, and activities there. These cookies are then stored in your web browser and are later accessed when you’ll visit the website again.

For example, while selecting a language on a multi-lingual website, the website may store this information on your computer in the form of a cookie.

Next time you visit the website, it’ll automatically load the page in the language you’ve previously selected by reading the information from the cookie so you don’t have to select your preferred language again. It’s very convenient, isn’t it?

There can be thousands of cookies stored in your web browser but since they’re very small in size you shouldn’t worry about them using up too much space. Nevertheless, you may always clear all available cookies directly from the browser’s settings menu.

If you do that then keep in mind that you’ll be logged out of all websites you’ve previously logged in to and hit the “remember me” checkbox.

Types of Cookies

There are three different types of cookies, each has a specific purpose and usually tracks different activities.

Session cookies

Session cookies, also known as temporary cookies, are created for a single session and vanish once you close the browser. They are first-party cookies and all the administrative authority regarding session cookies lies with the website and the user can’t disable session cookies from his browser.

Typically, session cookies are used by government websites and online banks. They keep track of your browsing session while you actively navigate the site. Once you close the browser, the cookies will automatically expire.

This prevents any malicious users from visiting those websites later using your saved session data.

Permanent cookies

Cookies that don’t expire after you close the browser or even shut down the computer are referred to as permanent cookies, also known as persistent cookies or tracking cookies.

They have a specific expiration date set by the website and remain valid until then.

Permanent cookies are usually meant to help users by keeping track of their previous logins so that they don’t need to enter usernames and passwords every time they visit a website.

Though the “keep me logged in” or “remember me” feature on websites is handy and makes things easier, it’s not exactly safe in terms of security and can be risky if people with malicious intentions somehow get access to your computer.

For security purposes, some websites offer an option to disable cookies. More often than not though this will restrict your ability to navigate the website since, as mentioned above, cookies are used to keep track of user’s sessions so, for example, you might not be able to access the client area.

To avoid this problem, you may still allow cookies and prevent your details from being misused by clearing your browser’s cache or cookies every now and then.

Third-party cookies

Third-party cookies are known as marketing or tracking cookies. These are the cookies embedded by third-party websites. For example, advertisements and banners are shown on a website you visit are usually displayed by a third-party.

These third-parties store cookies on your computer for the purpose of being able to collect as much information about you as possible to be able to display more relevant ads. This may include your search queries, behaviors, interests, and more.

That’s why sometimes when you visit a website you may see a banner or advertisement of a product you have previously looked at elsewhere. By tracking your movements with the help of cookies advertisers can get very specific when it comes to what they show you.

Though their aim is obviously to serve users with a more personalized experience, most people find these tracking cookies as an invasion of their privacy and consider it borderline illegal.

Google, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are some of the most common websites using third-party cookies.

Cookies themselves are harmless because they aren’t able to hold code. They can neither contain nor execute viruses or any other malicious code. But sometimes cookies can indirectly become the cause of malicious activities involving your data.

The reason behind their misuse is that they are just text files and are extremely vulnerable to cookie attacks. Other applications, spy-software and different cookies can harvest personal information like location, passwords, auto-completion details, etc from cookies on your system and use them maliciously.

“Cookie hijacking” is the term mostly used for unauthorized access to cookies.

If the hacker somehow gets their hands on the session or permanent cookies, that’s dangerous because this cookie hijacking creates a possible threat of unauthorized access to websites you’ve previously logged in to. The stolen cookies allow the hacker to get access to the user’s account without entering login details.

Cookie security is a major problem in the internet world. Security holes keep being found in different browsers which inadvertently can leak personal information to malicious users.

This can lead to all sorts of issues including credit card information theft, unauthorized access to personal email or other accounts, and more.

Once your data is stolen, you can be exposed to identity fraud. Your email alone can be tied to many different websites and services which, in turn, contain your personal information as well. The possibilities are endless for how the stolen information and email accounts can be used.

Though you shouldn’t disable cookies for all websites as they may need cookies for proper functioning you may certainly disable third-party cookies in your browser settings. Clear your cache on a regular basis and stay cautious while visiting unknown websites and giving your personal details there.

Cookies and the Law

Fortunately, countries now are taking privacy and security breaches seriously. Existing laws have been updated to keep up with the modern digital world and the new issues we face.

European Union

In the EU the “cookie law” has been enforced across all countries for a few years now. This law requires businesses with an online presence to take consent from visitors and consumers before using cookies.

Moreover, they should also notify their consumers about how their information will be stored and for which purposes it will be used. All businesses operating in the EU or catering to EU citizens ought to comply with the cookie law; else they can be penalized.

Though the cookie law applies across all EU countries, it’s up to every country how they will enforce it. For example, in the UK the penalty for non-compliance can reach over half a million dollars, while other countries in the EU may have other penalties.

The law is meant for the security of users and to protect their privacy and give them control over their data.

USA

In the USA the Behavioral Advertising Principles require website operators to disclose their use of cookies to the consumers when collecting sensitive information and they should take explicit consent.

Furthermore, they should provide users an option to opt-out of the data collection practice followed by mentioning the procedure guiding users on how to opt-out.

Russia

Russian Data Protection Act does not have specific guidelines regarding the distribution of cookies, but the law mentions explicit consent of the addressee in case of regular postal and electronic messages, so it can be presumed that cookies require the opt-in consent of the users in Russia.

Indonesia

Electronic Information and Transaction Law of Indonesia applies to all cookies storing the personal data of the users.

Whereas the law does not apply if the cookie is created and used merely for analytical purposes and has nothing to do with the personal information of the consumers.

Brazil

Just like Indonesia, data protection law in Brazil requires user’s consent when storing cookies with personal information of the users.

How to Disable Cookies?

Despite all the privacy and security concerns, cookies are very useful and handy as they make it possible for the websites to remember us ensuring a comfortable and hassle-free browsing experience.

They certainly can pose security issues and privacy concerns if they’re being used without users’ consent and knowledge. This nuisance can be easily controlled though as modern browsers feature various settings to change the default cookie behavior.

Follow these simple steps below to disable or enable cookies in your browser.

Disable Cookies in Chrome

  1. Click "Settings" in the top-right corner, marked by the three "dots".
  2. Click "Show advanced settings" at the bottom of the screen.
  3. Move on to the "Privacy" section and click on the "Content settings..." button.
  4. The settings for cookies may be changed in the cookies section right at the top.

To allow the retrieval of the first-party and third-party cookies, select "Allow local data to be set".

To disallow the storage of all types of cookies, select "Block sites from setting any data". One important bit has to be kept in mind, choosing such a setting may result in the improper functioning of websites that require sign-in information.

To block third-parties from creating and collecting cookies make sure to check "Block third-party cookies and site data". This will prevent third-party websites (mostly advertisers) from storing cookies on the user's browser.

Disable Cookies in Firefox

  1. Click on the menu button, marked by the three horizontal lines in the top-right corner, and select "Options".
  2. Move on to the "Privacy" tab on the left side.
  3. Under the "History" option select "Use custom settings for history" in the drop-down box.

Choosing the box containing "Accept cookies from sites" will result in the websites being able to store cookies.

If you would like to prevent cooking from being stored and access by third-parties make sure to set "Accept third-party cookies" to "Never" in the drop-down box. This will prevent third-parties from storing cookies on the user's browser.

Disable Cookies in Microsoft Edge

  1. Click on the menu button marked by the three dots in the top-right corner and select "Settings".
  2. Scroll down the bottom of the side panel and click on the "View advanced settings" button.
  3. To disable cookies select "Block all cookies" in the drop-down box right below the "Cookies" section.

Disable Cookies in Internet Explorer

  1. Click on the "Settings" icon in the top-right corner and select "Internet options".
  2. Switch to the "Privacy" tab.
  3. Move the slider all the way up and you should see "Block all cookies" displayed right next to it. To allow cookies you will need to move the slider all the way down instead.

Disable Cookies in Safari

  1. Click on the "Safari" menu item, and then the "Preference" option from the drop-down menu.
  2. Switch to the "Privacy" tab at the top.
  3. Next to "Cookies and website data" select "Always block".

Disable Cookies in Opera

  1. Click on "Tools" in the top menu and select "Preferences" in the drop-down box.
  2. Switch to the "Advanced" tab at the top.
  3. Select "Cookies" on the left side.
  4. Select "Never accept cookies" to disable cookies.

How to Clear Cookies?

Clear Cookies in Chome

  1. Click "Settings" in the top-right corner, marked by the three "dots".
  2. Click "Show advanced settings" at the bottom of the screen.
  3. Move on to the "Privacy" section and click on the "Content settings..." button.
  4. In the popup box click on the "All cookies and site data..." button.
  5. Click on the "Remove all" button in the top-right corner to clear cookies in Chrome. To delete individual cookies only you may enter them in the "Search cookies" text box and then either delete them one by one or click on the "Remove all shown" button.

Clear Cookies in Firefox

  1. Click on the menu button, marked by the three horizontal lines in the top-right corner, and select "Options".
  2. Move on to the "Privacy" tab on the left side.
  3. Under the "History" option select "Use custom settings for history" in the drop-down box.
  4. Click on the "Show cookies..." button.
  5. Click on the "Remove all" button at the bottom of the popup box to clear cookies in Firefox. To delete individual cookies only you may enter them in the "Search" text box and then click on the "Remove selected" button.

Clear Cookies in Microsoft Edge

  1. Click on the menu button marked by the three dots in the top-right corner and select "Settings".
  2. Click on the "Choose what to clear" button below the "Clear browsing data" heading.
  3. Check "Cookies and saved website data" and hit the "Clear" button to clear all cookies in Microsoft Edge.

Clear Cookies in Internet Explorer

  1. Click on the "Settings" icon in the top-right corner and select "Internet options".
  2. Click on "Delete..." under the "Browsing history" tab.
  3. Check "Cookies and website data" and hit delete to clear cookies in Internet Explorer.

Clear Cookies in Safari

  1. Click on the "Safari" menu item, and then the "Preference" option from the drop-down menu.
  2. Switch to the "Privacy" tab at the top.
  3. Click on the "Remove all website data" to clear cookies in Safari. To delete individual cookies only click on the "Details..." button, enter a domain in the "Search" text box and click on the "Remove" button.

Clear Cookies in Opera

  1. Click on "Tools" in the top menu and select "Preferences" in the drop-down box.
  2. Switch to the "Advanced" tab at the top.
  3. Select "Cookies" on the left side.
  4. Click on "Manage cookies" and then "Delete all cookies" to clear cookies in Opera.

Cookies FAQ

Why would someone want to clear cookies?

Cookies have been known to track users' data and information. This has led to the creation of many privacy-related concerns, wherein a user wouldn't want his privacy to be so easily accessed. Some cases have also been noticed, wherein tracker cookies, meant to follow a user's movements, have resulted in identity thefts.

Why are cookies used by websites?

Whenever users visit websites they have no idea who they are. By storing cookies on the user's browser these websites are able to customize the user experience for their visitors as well as maintain login sessions and of course display relevant ads.

What information do cookies store?

Cookies may store a wide array of information but as a general rule, they don't contain anything other than some random alphanumeric text characters to be able to identify the user and track their sign-in sessions, movements around the website, location, etc.

Who can access and view my cookies?

Only the websites you visit and their third-party affiliates are able to access your cookies. It's a good idea to refer to a website's privacy policy to learn about how and for what purpose they use cookies. Of course, if someone uses your browser they will also be able to view and access your cookies.

Are cookies safe and secure?

Cookies on their own are perfectly safe and do not pose any harm to users or their computers. It is important to keep in mind though that if someone obtains those cookies from your computer then they could potentially gain access to information that should otherwise be secure.

How long do cookies last?

It depends on the timer set for the cookie and could vary from website to website. For eCommerce-based websites, it may be anywhere from hours to years on end, same with the websites that ask users to sign-in. It may also get deleted automatically when the browser is closed which is known as the session cookie.